The Ultimate Martian Adventure: 8 Amazing Places to Visit on Mars

by Rida Fatima

Tourists on Mars
(Image Credit: Dall-e)

Mars, our neighboring planet, has long captivated the imagination of scientists, space enthusiasts, and even the general public. With its stark beauty and vast, barren landscapes, it’s a world of contrasts that fascinates and intrigues us. Imagine standing on the edge of a massive volcano or gazing into the depths of a canyon that dwarfs even the Grand Canyon on Earth. Picture yourself exploring the craters and valleys, searching for signs of life or evidence of ancient civilizations. For future tourists, the possibilities are endless, and the adventure is just beginning. While the landing sites for these missions will likely be chosen for safety and practicality, there’s no shortage of interesting geology to explore. Here are just a few of the incredible locations that await the intrepid travelers of the future.

Olympus Mons

Olympus Mons is one of the most fascinating destinations on Mars, and it’s a must-visit for any future Martian tourist. This massive shield volcano towers over the surrounding landscape, rising to a height of 22 kilometers (13.6 miles) above the Martian surface. To put that in perspective, Olympus Mons is nearly three times the height of Mount Everest, the tallest mountain on Earth! The volcano is so massive that its base is over 550 kilometers (340 miles) wide, making it wider than the entire state of Arizona. Standing on the slopes of Olympus Mons, you’ll feel like you’re on top of the world – or at least, on top of a very large mountain! Whether you’re a geology enthusiast or just looking for an awe-inspiring adventure, Olympus Mons is a destination you won’t want to miss.

Tharsis Volcanoes

Tharsis is a volcanic plateau on Mars that’s home to some of the largest and most impressive volcanoes in the solar system. The Tharsis volcanoes are a must-visit destination for any intrepid Martian traveler, offering breathtaking views and fascinating insights into the geology of this amazing planet. The largest volcano on Tharsis is called Arsia Mons, which stands a towering 16 kilometers (10 miles) high. That’s nearly twice the height of Mount Everest! Another fascinating Tharsis volcano is Pavonis Mons, which is surrounded by a mysterious hexagonal pattern that has puzzled scientists for decades. And then there’s Ascraeus Mons, which is home to a gigantic fissure system that stretches for over 1,000 kilometers (620 miles). Whether you’re a geology enthusiast or just looking for an adventure, the Tharsis volcanoes are a destination you won’t want to miss.

Valles Marineris

Valles Marineris is one of the most breathtaking and awe-inspiring destinations on Mars. This massive canyon system is over 4,000 kilometers (2,500 miles) long and up to 7 kilometers (4.3 miles) deep, making it the largest canyon in the solar system. To put that in perspective, Valles Marineris is ten times longer and five times deeper than the Grand Canyon on Earth! But the canyon is not just big – it’s also home to some fascinating geological features. One of the most interesting is the massive cliff known as the “Great Tharsis Ridge,” which is over 7 kilometers (4.3 miles) high and runs for hundreds of kilometers along the eastern edge of the canyon. And if you’re a fan of extreme sports, Valles Marineris offers some truly out-of-this-world experiences – imagine rappelling down the side of a 7-kilometer-deep canyon, or hiking across a Martian landscape that looks like it belongs on another planet entirely! So if you’re looking for adventure, excitement, and some of the most stunning natural scenery in the solar system, Valles Marineris is the destination for you.

The North And South Poles Of Mars

The poles of Mars are some of the most fascinating and unique destinations in the solar system. Unlike the Earth’s poles, which are covered in ice, the poles of Mars are covered in a mixture of ice and frozen carbon dioxide, known as dry ice. This creates a stunning landscape of white and blue, with towering ice cliffs and deep valleys. One of the most fascinating features of the Martian poles is the seasonal changes – in the winter, the poles are shrouded in darkness and extreme cold, while in the summer, they are bathed in sunlight and relatively warm temperatures. The polar regions of Mars are also home to some fascinating geological features, including massive canyons and valleys, as well as the largest volcano in the solar system – Olympus Mons, which is located near the northern pole. And if you’re lucky, you may even catch a glimpse of the stunning auroras that light up the Martian sky.

The Gale Crater and Mount Sharp (Aeolis Mons)

The Gale Crater and Mount Sharp, also known as Aeolis Mons, are two of the most fascinating and scientifically important destinations on Mars. The Gale Crater is a massive impact crater that’s over 150 kilometers (93 miles) in diameter, and it’s home to the Curiosity rover – one of the most advanced robotic explorers ever sent to Mars. Mount Sharp, located at the center of the Gale Crater, is a towering mountain that rises over 5 kilometers (3 miles) above the surrounding landscape. But Mount Sharp is more than just a mountain – it’s a geological time capsule, with layers of sediment that have been laid down over billions of years. By studying these layers, scientists hope to unlock the secrets of Mars’ past, and learn more about the planet’s geology and history. And if you’re looking for adventure, the Gale Crater and Mount Sharp offer plenty of opportunities for exploration and discovery. From hiking across the Martian landscape to studying the rocks and sediments up close, there’s something for everyone on this incredible planet.

The Recurring Slope Lineae in Hale Crater

The Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) in Hale Crater are some of the most mysterious and intriguing features on Mars. These dark streaks, which appear to flow down the sides of the crater walls during the Martian spring and summer, have puzzled scientists for years. Some believe that they may be evidence of liquid water on Mars, while others think that they may be caused by dry, flowing sand or dust. Whatever their cause, the RSL in Hale Crater offer a tantalizing glimpse into the geological and environmental mysteries of Mars. And if you’re looking for adventure, exploring the RSL in Hale Crater offers a unique and thrilling experience – imagine rappelling down the side of a Martian crater wall, or hiking through the rugged terrain in search of these elusive features.

Ghost Dunes

The ‘Ghost Dunes’ in Noctis Labyrinthus and Hellas basin are some of the most fascinating and enigmatic features on Mars. These dunes, which are believed to be millions of years old, have been preserved as ghostly outlines in the Martian rock. They were likely formed when Mars had a thicker atmosphere and more abundant liquid water, and they offer a glimpse into the planet’s past climate and geology. The dunes are also a reminder of the incredible power of wind on Mars, which is capable of shaping the landscape in ways that are both beautiful and mysterious. And if you’re looking for adventure, exploring the ‘Ghost Dunes’ offers a unique and thrilling experience – imagine hiking through the rugged terrain in search of these ancient formations, or camping under the Martian sky as you marvel at the wonders of the Red Planet.


Exploring the wonders of Mars is an adventure like no other. From towering mountains and vast canyons to mysterious dunes and ghostly outlines of ancient features, the Red Planet is a treasure trove of geological and environmental marvels. Whether you’re a seasoned explorer or a curious traveler, there’s something for everyone on this incredible planet. So pack your bags, grab your spacesuit, and get ready to experience the wonders of Mars. Who knows what discoveries and adventures await us in the future as we continue to explore and unlock the secrets of this fascinating planet!

NASA’s Research on How Bacteria Could Help Form Building Materials on Mars

by Rida Fatima

Illustration of a photobioreactor that could grow food and building materials on Mars
(Fig 1: Illustration of a photobioreactor that could grow food and building materials on Mars. Credit: Joris Wegner/ZARM/Universität Bremen.)

Bacteria can contribute to the formation of materials on Mars by a process known as biomineralization. Biomineralization is the process by which microorganisms produce and incorporate minerals into their structures and the surrounding environment. This process can create a variety of different materials, such as calcium carbonate, silica, and iron oxides, which can eventually become fossils that can be analyzed for evidence of past life. In the case of Mars, it is possible that microorganisms could have biomineralized in the past, forming structures such as stromatolites or other fossil-like structures that could serve as evidence of past life. Additionally, bacteria could be used to support human exploration of Mars by producing resources such as oxygen, food, and building materials. For example, certain species of bacteria could be used to extract minerals from Martian soil and process them into usable building materials, such as bricks or concrete (Gohd, 2023).

However, it is important to note that biomineralization on Mars would be a complex process that would require careful consideration of the harsh Martian environment, including factors such as low atmospheric pressure, intense radiation, and the lack of water. In addition, any bacterial populations that are established on Mars would need to be carefully managed to ensure that they do not contaminate the Martian environment and interfere with future scientific studies of the planet.

Biomineralization on Mars

Biomineralization refers to the process by which living organisms produce minerals and incorporate them into their bodies or external structures. On Mars, biomineralization could have taken place in the past if the planet once had conditions suitable for life. Evidence of biomineralization on Mars could help scientists to understand the nature and extent of past life on the planet, as well as the geochemical processes that took place on its surface. The presence of biomineralization on Mars could be indicated by the detection of minerals such as carbonates, silicates, and sulfates, which are commonly associated with biotic processes. Scientists are also searching for evidence of fossilized microorganisms, such as stromatolites, that could provide insight into the history of life on Mars. To search for biomineralization on Mars, scientists are using a variety of techniques, including X-ray diffraction, spectroscopy, and imaging (Tomaswick, 2023). The Mars rovers, Curiosity and Perseverance, are equipped with instruments that can analyze Martian rocks and soils to determine their mineral content and search for evidence of past life.

NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) for Phase I development

Jin — an assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, recently spoke with Universe Today via Zoom and described the path that led to her NIAC proposal,

“I have been working on self-healing concrete for the past few years. Therefore, we use bacteria or fungi to stimulate the biominerals to mend cracks when concrete develops them. Next, we consider alternative options like self-growing materials. So one would have aggregates or soil particles. To create a coherent body, we wish to use fungi or bacteria. We can just ship some bacteria or fungal spores to Mars in order to collect samples of the soil, atmosphere, and water, and they will construct the bricks for us”

(Gohd, 2023).

The process of “biomineralization,” in which bacteria and spores can put together minerals like calcium carbonate (CaCO3), or limestone, is the key to this. Since the Pheonix Mars Lander discovered evidence of CaCO3 at its landing location in 2008, scientists have known that Mars contains limestone and other carbonates. Later sample analysis by the Spirit and Opportunity rovers and mineral mapping by missions like NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter supported this (MRO). If there is no human labour, especially on Mars, this will be highly crucial. They can carry it out automatically. We suggest using materials already present on Mars rather than transporting them there.

Future missions might be provided with “synthetic biological toolkits,” in Jin’s idea, to produce synthetic lichen systems (diazotrophic cyanobacteria and filamentous fungi). When coupled with Martian regolith, they will transform CaO3 into a plentiful source of biopolymers that can be used to “create” building materials. According to Jin, “They will act as a catalyst to encourage the development of calcium carbonate, and those calcium carbonate crystals will act as a glue to bond those soil particles together.” The sand particles must be placed into the desired mould for the bacteria and fungi to develop and take on the shape of the mould.

The filamentous fungus and cyanobacteria each have a unique role to play in this envisioned autonomous system. The cyanobacteria, according to the NIAC concept, are in charge of the following:

1) absorbing carbon dioxide and converting it to carbonate ions and
2) supplying oxygen and organic chemicals to support the filamentous fungi.

However, the fungi are in charge of two important functions:

1) binding calcium ions to the cell walls of the fungi and acting as nucleation sites for calcium carbonate deposition.
2) promoting the survival and expansion of cyanobacteria by increasing their carbon dioxide levels and lowering their oxidative stress.

Additionally, the cyanobacteria and fungi release “Extracellular Polymeric Compounds” that improve the cohesiveness of precipitated particles as well as the adhesion of regolith particles to biopolymers. In order to ensure that these artificial bacteria and fungi function symbiotically rather than competitively, Dr. Jin also described the procedure for manufacturing them:

“We must identify the strains that get along well with one another. Mutualistic co-culturing is the name for it. In essence, some of them can improve the partner’s quality of life. Because of their filamentous structure, we require filamentous fungus. They can encourage more calcium carbonate crystals to form. However, we also require cyanobacteria, which can perform photosynthesis and produce organic carbon for fungus in the process of absorbing CO2.”

Bioreactors Produce Self-Healing Bricks

The proposal envisions bioreactors producing bricks that are removed to build surface structures. These building materials will also be self-healing, Jin says. “They have a lot of features that we don’t have with materials on Earth,” she said about Martian materials. Despite the fact that biomineralization is a topic that has been studied for years, this idea is unique for two reasons. It is the first effort, for one thing, to explore filamentous fungi as a source of biominerals rather than bacteria. Jin has studied biomineralization extensively recently, and her findings have shown that filamentous fungi have different benefits over bacteria. The most notable of these is their amazing ability to create a lot of minerals quickly (Tomaswick, 2023).

Second, by developing a synthetic lichen system and utilising symbiotic interactions between photoautotrophic cyanobacteria and heterotrophic filamentous fungi, this study is the first to use self-growing technology. It is well known that photoautotrophs use sunshine to convert inorganic carbon into organic molecules (in this case, organic carbon). Since they were typically limited to a particular species or strain of heterotrophs reliant on an ongoing external supply of organic carbon, none of the self-growing techniques examined thus far have been totally autonomous.


The technology has the potential to transform construction here on Earth in addition to creating habitats on Mars and other planets beyond Earth. This autonomous, self-growing technology has the ability to “repair” damaged structures and create new infrastructure while leaving a small carbon imprint in areas that have been impacted by conflict, natural catastrophes, and climate change. This technology is another illustration of how biological systems and species from the Earth inspire resilient and sustainable space systems. The same technologies that might make it possible for humans to live sustainably in space might also assist us in halting and reversing climate change on Earth. The interaction is symbiotic, much like the process that drives this suggested bioreactor technology (Tomaswick, 2023).


NASA’s Curiosity Rover Discovers Opal-Gemstone On Mars

by Rida Fatima

Discovery of Opal on Mars
(Figure 1: Discovery of Opal on Mars is significant evidence of Water in the past over the Martian surface)

A type of opal found in a Martian meteorite that can trap bacteria on Earth has been identified as a new target in the quest for indications of life on Mars.

A team of Arizona State University and NASA-affiliated researchers released a study last month in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. According to the study, NASA’s Mars Curiosity rover has recently discovered a water-rich mineral, Opal. It was revealed in the fractured halos of the gale crater located on the red planet. Curiosity completed its ten-year Mars exploration mission in August 2022. The core objective was to search for evidence of primitive life on this planet. As the largest and most capable rover ever sent to Mars, curiosity is NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission. NASA’s spacecraft has previously detected Martian opals from afar, and they have been found in Martian meteorites that were once fallen on Earth. Recently, a team led by Travis Gabriel, a research scientist at the US Geological Survey, has discovered light-coloured opal deposits on the Martian surface (Rayne, 2023).

Mars is a dry and desolate land that is constantly blasted with harmful solar radiation which is why the planet’s surface is inhospitable to life as we know it. Although, the darker environment inside the subsurface is adequately sheltered from the deadly radiation bombarding Gale Carter on Mars. Hence, the presence of water-rich opals within these fractures adds to the excitement of their discovery. (Bresson, 2023)

Curiosity Data From Mars

Water ice on Mars is prevalent at the poles and yet scarce at the equator, more specifically at the site of the Gale crater. Curiosity rover previously transmitted data from its DAN (Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons) spectrometer. It was then analyzed by a team of researchers who recognized cracked or fractured halos, rings of light-coloured sediment that appeared out because of their colour in both older and more recent Curiosity images. Further tests demonstrated that the light-coloured rock on the Martian surface was undoubtedly opal. Opals, which are considered gemstones, have sparkling colors that resemble rainbows. When silicon oxides dissolve in a damp atmosphere, they solidify in the gaps between rocks, forming these gems. This method converts opals into a small oasis that can hold up to 20% water.

Figure 2: Gale Crater on Mars Credits: NASA/JPL
(Figure 2: Gale Crater on Mars Credits: NASA/JPL)

Source Of Water On Mars

Scientists are hoping these Martian rocks comprising opal might be the source of water on Mars. As the composition of opal is mostly water and silica, the existence of this mineral could indicate that water once was present in these cracks to make them habitable. Moreover, opal on the Martian surface may one day be obtained for the water stored within, providing a source of water for future manned space missions on Mars. On Earth, opal can be found at the bottom of oceans, in geysers and hot springs or other water bodies. When silica particles settle to the bottom, they begin to form opal. Water can be extracted from opals because, even though they sparkle, they are still not minerals.

“Given the vast fracture networks identified in Gale Crater, it’s fair to predict that these potentially habitable subsurface conditions extended to many other portions of Gale Crater, and maybe to other regions of Mars,” Travis Gabriel said. He added “These ecosystems would have arisen long after Gale Crater’s old lakes dried up.”

The minerals constitute a firmly bound crystalline structure, whereas opals have a more loosely organized structure, that allows water to be removed. In case additional opal is located, astronauts exploring Mars in the future may have a large water source to extract water from. According to the statement, the fracture halos 1 metre in diameter “might store around one to 1.5 litres of water in the topmost foot of the surface.


The discovery of opal in the Gale Crater of Mars has given the Perseverance rover a new direction. If opal fracture halos exist on this crater, then they may also occur at Jezero Crater, where NASA’s Perseverance rover is looking for clues of past life. As Jezero Cater was originally a lake, there is a high probability that there could be more Martian opal waiting to be discovered. The existence of opal minerals in Martian Gale Crater shows that the planet may also have suffered short-term floods in the ancient past. Although it seems doubtful that life today exists on the arid surface of the red planet, these transient floods may have helped the microorganisms (bacteria or viruses) survive deeper down, or preserved microbial traces in opals. Gabriel is excited to investigate silica-rich structures at a new region on Mars to better comprehend the dynamics of water-rich environments on the red planet.


The NASA InSight Lander’s Historic Journey across Mars comes to an End

by Rida Fatima

After gathering unprecedented scientific data on Mars for over 4 years, NASA’s InSight project has officially come to a conclusion.

InSight Lander’s Historic Journey
(Figure 1: An Image of The NASA InSight Lander (Source: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SWNS))

Recently, the “InSight” Mars lander from NASA posted its formal farewell statement on Twitter, tearing at people’s heartstrings all across the world. The InSight lander from NASA, famed for taking the very first “selfie” on Mars, is about to shut down and lose touch with Home. It is unable to recharge since the solar panels on its roof are covered in a heavy layer of Martian dirt.

The Inner Workings of the InSight Lander

“InSight” stands for “Interior Exploration Using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport”. Over time, Mars’ seismic activity and meteorological fluctuations were observed by the many probes and measurement tools. Researchers can better grasp Mars’ interior, particularly the mantle and crust, thanks to details relating seismic quakes on Mars.

In November 2018, the robotic geologist initially landed on the desolate stretch of Elysium Planitia, carrying a hammer and a seismic meter. Jim Green, the lead researcher at NASA, stated before its 2018 flight that the operation’s basic significance to is comprehend the origins of our planetary system and how it evolved into what it is presently. Since then, it has conducted geological digs and used a cutting-edge seismograph that was set up right on planet mars’ surface to take the initial readings of seismic activities.

The Findings of the InSight Lander

It’s extremely precise seismometer, along with continuous surveillance by the French space program Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the Mars-quake Service run by ETH Zurich, picked up 1,319 mars-quakes, notably seismic events brought on by meteorite strikes, the greatest among which the year before exposed boulder-size ice fragments. These hits aid in establishing the planetary surface’s age.

Based on released campaign statistics, Insight has monitored over 1,300 quakes ever since it was deployed, and over 50 of them produced signatures that were sufficiently distinct for researchers to determine their position on the Martian surface.

The lander’s findings have also revealed information concerning the strata of Mars’ subsurface, its liquid core, the remarkably changeable remains of its largely defunct magnetosphere underneath the surface, weather, and earthquake activities.

The Challenges Faced by InSight during its Mission

InSight had a lot of difficulties while on its journey. The Self-hammering spike on the lander, dubbed “the mole,” was designed to burrow 16 feet (5 meters) deep while tethering sensors to monitor heat on the planet, allowing researchers to determine how much energy was left over from Mars’ birth.

The mole struggled to get footing in the unusually crumbly soil surrounding InSight because it was made for the open, granular soil encountered on prior expeditions. The device, which was made possible by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), ultimately sank its 16-inch (40-centimeter) probe close to the surface while gathering important information about the thermal and physical characteristics of the Martian surface. This will be helpful for upcoming human and robotic expeditions which aim to probe Martian soil.

Owing to JPL and DLR engineers’ creative use of the lander’s mechanical arm, the operation effectively buried the mole. The arm and its scoop were originally designed to place scientific equipment on the Surface of the planet, but as energy started to run low, they eventually assisted in cleaning debris from InSight’s solar panels.

The Final Moments of InSight’s Mission

“We’ve thought of InSight as our friend and colleague on Mars for the past four years, so it’s hard to say goodbye,” said Bruce Banerdt of JPL, the mission’s principal investigator. “But it has earned its richly deserved retirement.”

The solar-powered lander issued an update last month, reminiscing on its time in space:

“I’ve been lucky enough to live on two planets. Four years ago, I arrived safely at the second one, to the delight of my family back on the first. Thanks to my team for sending me on this journey of discovery. Hope I’ve done you proud.”

NASA made the decision to wait till InSight failed 2 check-ins with the satellite circling Mars which transmits its data to Earth before calling the operation complete.

The solar-powered lander’s surroundings were clouded by a strong dust storm that obscured the sunlight and left a shadowed picture with white specks from camera noise. Prior to the entire image being relayed, the communication was interrupted.

After making a couple of efforts to communicate with the lander, project commanders at the company’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Southern California came to the conclusion that the rover’s solar-powered battery had run out of energy, a condition known to engineers as “dead bus.”

The space program issued a warning in November that the rover’s lifespan could be running out as debris proceeded to gather and suffocate the InSight’s energy.

The lander’s ability to generate electricity continuously decreased as the layer of wind-blown dirt on its solar panels increased, according to a 2 November statement from NASA. The conclusion of the expedition, according to NASA, was anticipated to occur within the coming weeks.

The InSight lander's dome-covered seismometer
(Figure 2: The InSight lander’s dome-covered seismometer seen on the surface of Mars as the spacecraft loses power. (Source: NASA InSight Twitter account))

On Monday, NASA’s official InSight twitter account released the following statement:

“My power’s really low, so this may be the last image I can send. Don’t worry about me though: my time here has been both productive and serene. If I can keep talking to my mission team, I will – but I’ll be signing off here soon. Thanks for staying with me.”

NASA had originally determined to end the project if the rover didn’t respond to 2 attempts at contact. Although it is thought to be improbable at this stage, the organization will continue its attempts to search for a message from the rover. Dec. 15 marked the final moment InSight spoke with Earth.

“InSight has more than lived up to its name. As a scientist who’s spent a career studying Mars, it’s been a thrill to see what the lander has achieved, thanks to an entire team of people across the globe that helped make this mission a success,” said Laurie Leshin, director of JPL, who was in charge of managing the expedition “Yes, it’s sad to say goodbye, but InSight’s legacy will live on, informing and inspiring.”


Synthetic Biology For The Improvement of Manned Space Missions In Space

by Rida Fatima

Synthetic Biology
(Figure 1: After humans reach an extraterrestrial destination, microbial-based biomanufacturing might change everything and become a key source of making life interplanetary. (This photo is provided by Royal Academy Interface))

As humans enter a new era of exploring the cosmos to know what lies beyond our sky, there are many challenges they must overcome. New technologies are being brought to light by the innovators of science to allow them to travel further from planet Earth. Space synthetic biology is a promising life support approach, that minimizes the payload launched and increases reuse and recycling. It also uses local resources for the creation of essential products needed by the astronauts aboard ISS. The application of synthetic biology in space exploration is the key to future manned space missions.

Target Areas For Synthetic Biology In Space

The 4 main target areas on which scientists are focusing are how synthetic biology can make fuel generation, biopolymer synthesis, food production, and pharmaceutical manufacture more effective and efficient. Microbial biomanufacturing also has a lot of significance as it can lower the mass of manufactured fuel by 56%. In addition, bacteria might entirely restock exhausted or contaminated medicinal supplies, enabling independence from the resupply cargo missions that take up to 210 days to reach Mars.

Mars Food Production, augmented by Synthetic Biology
(Mars Food Production, augmented by Synthetic Biology (dall-e))

Synthetic Biology Application For Rocket Fuel

Using biotechnology, scientists have developed a strategy for producing crucial propulsion fuel for the journey to Mars. This study seeks to provide numerous significant benefits over existing proposed ways for producing Mars rocket fuel. Considerable synthesis of biological propellants is projected to become a vital technology for future Mars exploration missions.

As the cost of launching and sending payload to Mars is extremely expensive, it makes sense to manufacture some of the needed fuel in space instead of bringing it all from Earth. The generation of a methane-oxygen fuel mixture is being planned by utilizing carbon dioxide, it will be needed for the return trip from Mars. Apart from this, recently another fuel blend idea has gained attention due to its efficiency and safety. It involves blending nitrous oxide along with a few specific hydrocarbons, though studies and research are still going on to check how this blend can be generated in space. Here, synthetic biology is helping in two ways; if a methane-oxygen fuel blend is chosen then it will increase the savings. The generation of nitrous oxide hydrocarbon fuel becomes more efficient and suitable.

Manufacturing Of Space Medicine

Drugs have faster expiry in space due to exposure to harmful space radiation. There is a high chance of lowering the tolerability of solid medication formulations by up to 3 quarters. The capacity to synthesise pharmaceuticals in space is very important for astronauts in long-haul space flights. Synthetic biology medication manufacturing is a potential replacement for conventional drug production methods in space. It also significantly minimises the requirement for emergency payload supplies. That’s where Space Synthetic Biology (SynBio) project comes in, which was introduced by NASA for developing technology to produce valuable items such as vitamins and medications on demand.

Astronauts can take the only renewable and natural resource from Earth into space: Cells. It can either be fungi or bacteria cells. They can be repurposed or modified to manufacture specific materials such as bioplastics using synthetic DNA. These bioplastics can then be introduced in 3-D printers to create anything that astronauts may require during their space missions. The constructed material can be anything such as electronic gadgets or medical equipment.

These innovative technologies are still evolving, and a long-duration human space trip is still several years away. An increase in mass savings occurs when the supplied feedstock essential to 3-D print a lunar or Martian habitat is substituted for the shipped mass required to biologically create the feedstock on location. Nevertheless, 3-D printing in space is still new and unproven. Additionally, the production of printer feedstock for this purpose has yet to be thoroughly investigated.

Significant Role In Food Production

The BioNutrients experiment is part of US space agency NASA’s SynBio project. It is located at NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley. It will assess and evaluate an in-space nutrient production approach that employs genetically-engineered baker’s yeast and a longer shelf growth substrate. The aim is to produce the antioxidants that are mostly found in carrots, bell peppers, and vegetables. Beta carotene and zeaxanthin are included in such antioxidants.

The first batch of “BioNutrient” was sent to the ISS in April 2019. The length of experiment was decided to be five years by the SynBio team. Dehydrated yeast along with their food source was present in BioNutrient packs. To begin the testing, astronauts aboard the International Space Station added sterile water to the bag. It was thoroughly mixed, and kept in a warm place for 48 hours. It was frozen for further analysis to be done on Earth to check how well the system performed and how much yeast grew in the BioNutrient packets. Not only that, but the SynBio project team is also working on a mechanism that chemically transforms CO2 and H2O into organic molecules that can “feed” microbial biomanufacturing systems. It will also allow them to produce a variety of items like food, medicines, and plastics. This method could be widely used to generate these things in a sustainable manner on Earth.

Future Of Space Synthetic Biology

Space synthetic biology is truly ground-breaking. Abiotic technologies were developed for decades before they were successfully utilized in space, and biological technologies like synthetic biology are only now seeing development efforts. Of course, these technologies have some catching up to do, but it turns out that they may not be too far behind, and in some cases, the technologies may already be superior to their abiotic counterparts. This innovative technological field of science holds great future promise as a new and exciting biotechnology field, with numerous directions for fruitful research that are grounded in technologies already in development today.



by Rida Fatima

Instead of just sedimentary rocks, the Perseverance rover from NASA discovered something
(Fig 1: Instead of just sedimentary rocks, the Perseverance rover from NASA discovered something in the early stages of life in the Jezero Crater on Mars. Jezero Crater on Mars was photographed by NASA’s Perseverance rover.)

Since red rocks and craters can be seen in every Mars image that has been seen by humanity so far, Mars is thought of as a red planet. Scientists did not expect to see anything otherwise when NASA’s Perseverance rover landed in Mars’ Jezero Crater. However, what the rover discovered on the ground was unexpected. As we have seen in the past, Jazero Crater was chosen as the perfect location for the rover to land, as this part of Mars has a very rich river system, magnetic field, air, and liquid water. Two famous planetary researchers in the fields of earth sciences, planetary sciences, and atmospheric sciences are known as Roger Wiens and Briony Horgan, and they have published something very new in the famous journals. According to information released by Purdue University, where these researchers work, the rover was going to witness sedimentary rocks on the bottom side of the lake, but instead, it witnessed something different and unexpected and discovered many of these rocks to be volcanic in origin. According to the university, these rocks were discovered to contain “huge grains of olivine, the muddier, less-gemlike variant of period that colors so many of Hawaii’s beaches rich green” (ABP, 2022).

A tweet by NASA’s official about the Jazero Crater
(Fig 2: A tweet by NASA’s official about the Jazero Crater. Picture Credits: Twitter and NASA.)

They began to notice that the layered igneous rocks we were witnessing did not resemble the igneous rocks found on Earth today. Instead, they resemble the igneous rocks that formed when the Earth first formed, according to Wiens. In order to analyze samples and identify the kind and provenance of the rocks, the SuperCam on Perseverance was designed and built under Wiens’ direction. Horgan, on the other hand, assisted in deciding on Jezero Crater as the rover’s landing spot. The rocks and lava that the rover on Mars is examining are almost 4 billion years old, according to the experts. The fact that our planet has active tectonic plates, in addition to the weathering impacts of wind, water, and life over billions of years, means that while such ancient rocks have been discovered, they are severely weather-beaten. But on Mars, these rocks are pure, making it far simpler to investigate them, the university claimed (ABP, 2022).

The Jezero Crater Surprise

During the spring of 2021, the Perseverance rover from NASA started studying the rocks in Jezero Crater on Mars. When the rover communicated what they had discovered, scientists were taken aback. Since the location once hosted a lake, sedimentary rock that formed when sand and mud settled in the wet environment was expected to be there. Instead, the rover found that the floor was composed of two different types of igneous rock, one of which was generated by magma deep beneath and the other by volcanic activity on the surface, according to NASA. Because the crystals in igneous rocks preserve a wealth of information regarding the precise moment of their formation, they are regarded as excellent timekeepers.

According to a NASA blog post by Ken Farley of Caltech, the project scientist for Perseverance and the author of the aforementioned Science publication, “The igneous rocks we obtained will tell us approximately when the lake was existing in Jezero. We are aware that it predates the formation of the igneous crater floor rocks.” He said that this would answer several important concerns, such as when Mars’ environment was suitable for lakes and rivers and when it reverted to the extremely chilly and dry conditions that exist today. The hunt for life is one of Perseverance’s primary professed objectives. However, igneous rock isn’t the best material for preserving any potential traces of prehistoric microscopic life that the rover may find, according to NASA, because of the manner it was generated. On the other hand, sedimentary rock frequently originates in wet settings that are favorable for life, making it better at preserving early indications of life. Sedimentary rock’s age might be difficult to ascertain, especially if it includes fragments that were produced at several points before the sediment was deposited (ABP, 2022).

According to NASA, this is why scientists found the sediment-rich river delta that the rover has been exploring since April 2022 to be particularly “tantalising.” We observed these rocks from orbit and said, “Oh, they have gorgeous layers! We therefore assumed that they were sedimentary rocks. We didn’t realise that these are not sedimentary rocks until we were up close and examined them at the millimetre scale. Actually, these are old lava. We had a major breakthrough when we discovered it on the ground, and it amply demonstrated the need for this kind of exploration”, according to Horgan, who was quoted by Purdue.

Scientists have high hopes for the sedimentary rocks that Perseverance is currently analysing after uncovering the potential for habitable conditions in Jezero Crater’s old lava flows, which are currently thought to be uninhabitable (TECH, 2022).

The anticipation for “further greater results about organics and old, livable ecosystems” is expressed by Horgan. “According to my observations, it is really laying the groundwork that the Red Planet is this much of an aqueous, livable planet, and by getting all the samples back, it will lead us to understand even better the chemistry of ancient microbial life that is existing on the Red Planet,” the researcher says. Furthermore, NASA is still collecting major samples of the sedimentary rocks, which will be returned to Earth by the Mars Sample Return campaign, and further analysis will be done in well-equipped labs.


A “Forest Bubble” On Mars? Scientist Proposes Ambitious Plan For Sending Wildlife To Mars

by Rida Fatima

Forest Bubble on Mars
(Figure 1: 3D Illustration of a Mars outpost colony with a geodesic dome. Credit:

A report from the CNET network reveals that a detailed proposal has been made by a botanist and an ecologist for a flourishing green space on the desolate and barren surface of Mars. The ENTR, abbreviated as “extraterrestrial nature reserve,” would appear as a “forest bubble” resembling a greenhouse that was created to replicate Earth’s biosphere on the red planet (Young, 2022). Ultimately, it would make life easy and allow the earthlings to feel like home on Mars and also for the early inhabitants it will act as sustainable source of raw material and as well as source of food to survive in a proper manner.

Aspire to make an Earth-like Environment on Red planet

Paul Smith, a botanist from the University of Bristol, outlined the plan for developing a thriving, controlled ecosystem on Mars in a study that was published in one of the most authentic journals related to Astrobiology research last month. The study begins by summarizing the difficulties colonists will face on the Red planet, which includes a difficult environment that is inhospitable for human beings, as well as radiation and less favorable sunshine than on planet Earth. The botanist also argues that some Earth species may be able to adapt to life on the red planet despite these difficulties (Young, 2022).

According to Smith, Mars might support a variety of fauna, including fungi, invertebrates like earthworms and spiders, and soil bacteria. If we talk about the plants such as junipers and birches it would be very hard for them to survive in such an environment with a little amount of sunlight, as for the flora. Smith underlined the need to avoid trying to recreate a copy of a forest which completely resembles the forests on Earth on mars because doing so would prevent nonhuman species like raccoons, fish, and birds from being able to live in their natural habitats. According to Smith, “ETNR designers should take species into account as ecological cogs that may be assembled into functional ecosystems.” While it is now impossible to replicate Earth’s forests, it is possible to create new ecosystems that function in novel ways.

A “Futuristic Noah’s Ark”- Style Starship

Although Smith acknowledges in his article that he hasn’t thought about the enterprise’s finances, the idea of a Mars ecosystem that delivers life outside for humans on the red planet is one that is attractive. Prior to its first orbital trip, SpaceX recently tested the Starship prototype’s static fire capability. The business is working on an entirely reusable Starship spacecraft to make the flight to space within a reasonable budget and enable human journeys to the Red Planet. But it doesn’t mean it won’t be a very expensive endeavor for people and freight, let alone animals (HeadTopics, 2022).

However, according to Smith’s concept, little invertebrates would be the most suitable for a Martian ecology because they would weigh little and might be able to travel with other cargo. The ETNR is also described in Smith’s plan as a possible option for some species to survive. “If the population of humans continues to rise on Earth, natural places will have to be sacrificed.” Another option is to terraform Mars to add more habitats. All of this is consistent with Elon Musk’s lofty plan for Starship, which he compared to a “futuristic Noah’s Ark” earlier this year. But first, SpaceX needs to launch its enormous reusable spacecraft into orbit (Young, 2022).


NASA Perseverance Mars Rover Examines ‘Tantalizing’ Rock for Evidence of Ancient Life

by Rida Fatima

NASA Perseverance Mars Rover Examines 'Tantalizing' Rock
(Figure 1: Image of “Yori Pass” taken by Hazard-Avoidance Camera (Hazcams) on NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover on Nov. 5, 2022, the 609th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

To seek evidence of ancient microbial life, Perseverance is investigating a spot called Yori Pass located in the Jazero Crater of the Red Planet. Mars once had a dense atmosphere and liquid water running on its surface. However, it has now been a barren wasteland for billions of years. Studies have shown Microbes from Earth could also thrive on Mars for many millions of years. On Mars, the river channels spewed over the crater wall and formed a lake more than 3.5 billion years ago. Water carried minerals from the nearby region into the crater lake. Microbial life might have existed in Jezero during these wet periods. If this is the case, evidence of their remains may be found in lakebed or shoreline sediments.

The Sensational Sandstones on Mars

Scientists are looking for ways to investigate how the Martian environment formed and evolved. Search for signs of past life is at its full pace. Rover is collecting samples of Mars rock and soil that may contain such traces. The region, Yori Pass is located in a long-gone river delta region and at the base of Jezero Crater. The crater is believed to have been flooded with water early in Mars’s history. The delta may have once carried the molecules required for life. After spotting some sensational sandstone, NASA’s Perseverance rover decided to explore Mars’ secrets with much excitement. The rover found some rocks there that have excited scientists back on Earth.

Rock sample collection from the Jazero crater is the primary objective of the Perseverance Mars rover. It has to find any signs that life once existed on the Red Planet. It could be any element, molecule, substance or feature that is characteristic of life. According to NASA, scientists find Yori Pass features to be tantalizing as it is sandstone. Not only that but it is also composed of fine grains that might have come from somewhere else due to flowing water before ending up settling and turning into stones. The geological pieces of evidence are so exciting here for the scientists because they consider these fine-grained rocks to have the best chance of preserving the indication of life. Furthermore, they also contain a higher concentration of clay materials that can protect large organic molecules from harmful UV radiation. Hence, due to the presence of this clay material sandstone molecules remain protected from degradation.

Clues of Ancient Life

Historical confirmations of water on Jazero Crater are the main reason NASA chose it as a landing site for its life-exploring rover. The ancient Mars atmosphere could have supported an underground world overflowing with microbial species. The rover used an abrasion tool to clean off a bit of the rock and look beneath the dusty surface. It uncovered veins of lighter material within the beige surroundings. “Could it hold clues about ancient life?” the Perseverance team tweeted. NASA expects that Perseverance will reveal biosignatures in the Yori Pass rock. This discovery could be defined as “any property, element, molecule, material, or trait that can indicate ancient life.” The rover has recently explored organic compounds in a rock sample, although it is too early to tell if this is proof of microscopic organisms from the red planet’s old days.

Yori Pass and Hogwallow Flats

To properly comprehend what’s going on with the bedrock from Jezero Crater, researchers will have to get their hands on them which is possible through NASA’s innovative Mars Sample Return mission. NASA intends to retrieve rock samples collected by Perseverance and return them to Earth for analysis. A sample of the Yori Pass sandstone would be a valuable prize. Katie Stack Morgan is a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL by NASA) research scientist who is interested in Martian sedimentology, stratigraphy, and geologic mapping of planetary surfaces. Morgan compares the Yori Pass rock bed to Hogwallow Flats, popularly known as “the Bacon Strip” attributed to its light-coloured stripes stones since they are both situated at the very same altitude. They also have a massive, traceable footprint that is evident on the Martian surface. The rocks in Hogwallow Flats look to be particularly fine-grained. Fine-grained rocks are intriguing for mission scientists as they may have the best chance of preserving signs of life.


The Perseverance rover has been investigating the Jezero Crater since it landed on Mars in February 2021. For the first time, the rover’s spectacular fall was captured on video by the spacecraft. This spectacular Mars rover has gathered 14 rock-core samples and an air sample. Since then, these samples are kept in the rover’s belly. The sample-collection mission started in September 2021. First of all, it efficiently extracted a pencil-thin rock core from Jezero Crater. Then it was deposited in an airtight titanium sample tube. These materials are a significant part of the proposed joint NASA/ESA sample-return mission, which seeks to send a spacecraft to Mars. It will recover encased Martian rock and soil samples from Perseverance. Then they will be delivered to Earth for comprehensive and detailed in-depth investigation.


280 Million-Year-Old Bacteria Might be Lurking Beneath Mars’ Surface

By Raquel Santos

Conan the Bacterium
(Deinococcus radiodurans (Image by Michael J. Daly/USU) )

Knowing whether there is or ever was life on Mars is a question that we’ve always asked ourselves. There was never any solid indication that there was any form of life on our neighboring planet. Until now.

Researchers at Northwestern University conducted an experiment in which they simulated Mars’ radiation conditions to see how long dried, frozen bacteria and fungi could survive. They concluded that Deinococcus radiodurans, also known as ‘Conan the Bacterium’, could survive 280 million years if buried.

This means that there could be some form of life on Mars, just below the surface, and that the chances of uncovering it are higher than ever.

A Hard-Knock Life on Mars

It’s not complicated to explain why it would be pretty much impossible to find life on Mars. The Red Planet’s environment is unforgiving with icy temperatures, solar protons, and cosmic radiation constantly bombarding its surface.

While there’s evidence that the planet was once more hospitable, it now resembles a frozen desert.

“There is no flowing water or significant water in the Martian atmosphere, so cells and spores would dry out,” said study coauthor Brian Hoffman. “It also is known that the surface temperature on Mars is roughly similar to dry ice, so it is indeed deeply frozen.”

Previous research suggested that some bacteria would be able to survive for up to about a million years beneath the surface of Mars. Now, scientists have discovered that perhaps some life forms could withstand the planet’s harsh conditions for a lot longer.

Martian Simulations – A Proof of Life?

A research team from Northwestern University conducted an experiment in which they simulated the martian environment and radiation to see if any kind of bacteria or fungi could survive underneath the surface.

They exposed six types of organisms to a simulation of the Red Planet’s surface and then zapped them with large doses of gamma radiation and protons to mimic radiation in space. One robust microbe, in particular, the Deinococcus radiodurans, showed promise against the simulated martian conditions.

Conan in a dish
(Conan the Bacterium in a dish (Image by Michael J. Daly/USU))

Using a spectroscopy technique, the researchers measured the accumulation of manganese antioxidants in the microbes’ cells. The more manganese antioxidants are present in the cells, the more resistant a microorganism is to radiation and the better odds it has of survival.

The accumulation of the substance on Conan the Bacterium was such that it would be able to take 140,000 grays of radiation, a dose that’s 28,000 times greater than what would kill us, humans.

Ultraviolet light would kill this microorganism in a few hours if it were exposed to the surface. However, if it were buried just 10 centimeters beneath the surface, its lifespan would increase to 1.5 million years. Burying it 10 meters below showed that Deinococcus radiodurans could survive up to 280 million years.

Conan the Bacterium’s survival skills are due to its genetic code. This microorganism’s chromosomes and plasmids are perfectly aligned and linked together in a way that allows for careful repair after intense radiation exposure.

But what does this all mean exactly?

The Risk of Interplanetary Contamination

If any bacteria or fungi similar to Deinococcus radiodurans ever existed on Mars, particularly during a time when the water stopped flowing, its remains might still be dormant just under the surface.

“Although D. radiodurans buried in the Martian subsurface could not survive dormant for the estimated 2 to 2.5 billion years since flowing water disappeared on Mars, such Martian environments are regularly altered and melted by meteorite impacts,” Michael Daly said. “We suggest that periodic melting could allow intermittent repopulation and dispersal. Also, if Martian life ever existed, even if viable lifeforms are not now present on Mars, their macromolecules and viruses would survive much, much longer. That strengthens the probability that, if life ever evolved on Mars, this will be revealed in future missions.”

Future missions like ExoMars, the Mars Life Explorer, and the Mars Sample Return programs will extract and return materials from about two meters below Mars’ surface. The teams hope that these extractions can prove whether life ever existed on the Red Planet.

If there is in fact evidence that there are any dormant life forms on Mars, there might be risks of contamination. Future missions and astronauts might contaminate the planet with their microbes.

“Our model organisms serve as proxies for both forward contamination of Mars, as well as backward contamination of Earth, both of which should be avoided,” said Michael Daly. “Importantly, these findings have biodefense implications, too, because the threat of biological agents, such as Anthrax, remains a concern to military and homeland defense.”

The study, “Effects of desiccation and freezing on microbial ionizing radiation survivability: Considerations for Mars sample-return” was published in the journal Astrobiology and can be found, here.


Can we establish Human Civilization in Space in the next 50 years?

by JkTheAnonymousWriter

“The human race must colonize space within the next 100 years or it will become extinct”
~ Stephen Hawking

International Space Station
(Credit: Nasa)

Let’s start this from the start. Isaac Newton must have thought about space travel in his thought experiment to evaluate orbital motion. Cannonballs when fired from the mountain top with a high muzzle speed and if the velocity is much higher, then their paths curve downward no more sharply than the Earth’s surface curves away underneath them; therefore, the cannon-balls will surely go into orbit. This experiment is still the neatest and easiest way to teach the concept of orbital flight.

Newton estimated that to throw a cannonball into the Earth’s orbit, its speed must be about 25000 km/h. However, even after knowing that we weren’t able to achieve that speed until 1957 with the launch of Sputnik 1, 12 years later, we stepped on the moon.

And now we are in the Cenozoic Era. Hundreds more have now traveled into space, which means we have done nothing more than circle the Earth in a space station. The ISS (International Space Station) was one of the most expensive artifacts ever constructed. The ISS acts as a microgravity and technical payoff space environment research laboratory. Extensive scientific research is conducted there in fields like astrobiology, astronomy, meteorology, physics, and some other major fields that might lead us to successful space colonies.

We have so far developed many technologies, space inventories, and robots that will easily help us to explore the entire universe. But the main problem is that we depend on chemical fuel, and at the speed we are going, it might take more than billions of times infinity to explore the entire universe. However, in this century, we will successfully explore our solar planets up to the very edge. We have sent the JWST (James Webb space telescope) into space, which will reveal the mysterious unknown things of the universe. The discoveries will lead us to a new space era and will expand our vision of the entire cosmos.

We are moving towards better communication through networking satellites. In total, about 4,852 active satellites are orbiting the Earth as of January 1, 2022. Researchers and astronomers are planning to take the next step toward planet mining and space fabrication. In that way, they plan to lower the cost of space missions by using space materials as fuel and other means for better and cheaper exploration.

In 2024, NASA is launching a moon base camp mission – Artemis. They are planning to build a gateway in lunar orbit so that they can easily export robots, human beings, and other materials for further research. Also, it will help us learn more about the major effects of disrupted Space Space circadian rhythms, isolation, and high doses of radiation—all this information is quite necessary for establishing space territorial civilization and exploration.

It’s quite complex and sophisticated, as we see in sci-fi movies, to colonize space. Initially, it will be robots who will be sent, not humans, into Mars, space, and exoplanets. The robots that can work and utilize information without any signals or input, such as AI robots, can work for long hours with no human contact. Because it will almost certainly take a long time to send a signal from another planet to Earth and then back again. In the coming years, private space organizations like SpaceX, led by Elon Musk, Blue Origin, and Jeff Bezos, will surely bring the silicon valley culture to space tourism. Elon Musk is planning to launch 100 missions in 2023. He has already succeeded in building reusable rockets. Reusable rockets, which seemed impossible a few years back.

We would have already built a space colony by now if we had solved the problems of the cost price of every mission, space radiation, intrinsic inefficiency of chemical fuel, weight load, and much more. If we remain dependent on our usual means, then surely it will take a lot of time and money to even build a base camp on another planet.

Despite the endless hurdles, scientists are working day and night on many innovations and intriguing ideas that might change the course of our space journey. Project RAMA has proposed a unique and faster way to explore space by turning space rocks and asteroids into autonomous spacecraft. It will use robotic processes to transform asteroid elements into programmed automata.

Another innovation is Nasa’s smart spacesuits with stretchable self-healing skin. It will be a hybrid, intelligent, mobile EVA space suit that helps humans detect signals, weather, and survive on Mars missions.

If Elon Musk succeeds in Mars colonization, then we will surely need breathable air. Ivan Ermanoski, an extraordinary research professor at Arizona State University, has proposed that he can help in making that possible through a process called thermal swing sorption/desorption, which is also known as TSSD. TSSD will help in generating breathable oxygen on the red planet. This portable oxygen generator will use 10 times less energy as compared to our other leading methods.

Also, space mining can transform space rockets. Nasa is planning to work on a technique called optical mining. They plan to transform the asteroid using concentrated sunlight into rocket propellants.

Establishing space colonies on other planets will surely mold and transform our human species’ future. Scientists are planning to do so with 3D printers to create 3D-printed homes, which will not only protect you from the outer atmosphere but radiation too.

Virgin Galactic aims to make space tourism active soon. Virgin Galactic has claimed to have already taken around 600 deposits for space passengers booked on the first-ever commercial space flight that might soon take off in the coming few years.

So, the answer to the question of: will we be able to establish space colonization? Well, we can surely say space tourism will be a big thing and a billionaire-making industry in the coming 50 years. As for space colonization, as far as we are going, many private companies will surely succeed in making base camps and transportation camps, and that will surely lead to Mars civilization in the coming 50 years.

We need a habitable atmosphere, where gravity can hold the habitable atmosphere in its grasp and can sustain life. Even if we move to Mars and build artificial gravity and camps for organic sustainability and evolution, it will lead to a generic constraint. It will further lead to organic intelligence species that will evolve on another planet.

But forget about mass emigration from Earth. It will not be possible within such a feasible budget. Also, political obstacles and public opinion do play a part in that. It is quite possible to take measures and transform the earth while preserving what we have.

However, in doing so, we won’t ever get an answer to our prime question, “Are we alone?”.